The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

Rhett P. Ketterling, Erica L. Vielhaber, Tammy J. Lind, Erik C. Thorland, Steve S. Sommer

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36 Scopus citations


Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of ≥21 bp) are uncommon. We have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3- kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For our sample of 203 independent mutations, we estimate the 'baseline' rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb) deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversions, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-213
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of human genetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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    Ketterling, R. P., Vielhaber, E. L., Lind, T. J., Thorland, E. C., & Sommer, S. S. (1994). The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene. American journal of human genetics, 54(2), 201-213.