Myocarditis is a diverse group of heart-specific immune processes classified by clinical and histopathological manifestations. Up to 40% of dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with inflammation or viral infection. Recent experimental studies revealed complex regulatory roles for several microribonucleic acids and T-cell and macrophage subtypes. Although the prevalence of myocarditis remained stable between 1990 and 2013 at about 22 per 100,000 people, overall mortality from cardiomyopathy and myocarditis has decreased since 2005. The diagnostic and prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance has increased with new, higher-sensitivity sequences. Positron emission tomography has emerged as a useful tool for diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. The sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy may be increased, especially in suspected sarcoidosis, by the use of electrogram guidance to target regions of abnormal signal. Investigational treatments on the basis of mechanistic advances are entering clinical trials. Revised management recommendations regarding athletic participation after acute myocarditis have heightened the importance of early diagnosis.
- heart failure
- t-lymphocyte subsets
- viral infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine