Background: Radiography is the initial imaging modality used to evaluate femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), and diagnostic radiographic findings are well-established. However, the prevalence of these radiographic findings in patients with hip pain is unknown. Purpose: The purpose was 3-fold: (1) to determine the overall prevalence of radiographic FAI deformities in young patients presenting with hip pain, (2) to identify the most common radiographic findings in patients with cam-type FAI, and (3) to identify the most common radiographic findings in patients with pincer-type FAI. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A geographic database was used to identify patients aged 14 to 50 years with hip pain between the years 2000 to 2016. The following were evaluated on radiographs: cam type: typical pistol grip deformity, alpha angle >55°; pincer type: crossover sign (COS), coxa profunda or protrusio acetabuli, lateral center edge angle (LCEA) ≥40°, Tönnis angle <0°; and mixed type: both cam- and pincer-type features. Posterior wall sign (PWS) and ischial spine sign (ISS) were also evaluated. The prevalence of each was determined. Descriptive statistics were performed on all radiographic variables. Results: There were 1893 patients evaluated, and 1145 patients (60.5%; 1371 hips; 374 male and 771 female; mean age, 28.8 ± 8.4 years) had radiographic findings consistent with FAI. Of these hips, 139 (10.1%) had cam type, 245 (17.9%) had pincer type, and 987 (72.0%) had mixed type. The prevalence of a pistol grip deformity and an alpha angle >55° was 577 (42.1%) and 1069 (78.0%), respectively. The mean alpha angle was 66.9°± 10.5°. The prevalence of pincer-type radiographic findings was the following: COS, 1062 (77.5%); coxa profunda, 844 (61.6%); ISS, 765 (55.8%); PWS, 764 (55.7%); Tönnis angle <0°, 312 (22.8%); LCEA ≥40°, 170 (12.4%); and protrusio acetabuli, 7 (0.5%). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of radiographic findings consistent with FAI in young patients with hip pain was 60.5%. Radiographic findings for mixed-type FAI were the most prevalent. The most common radiographic finding for cam-type FAI was an alpha angle >55°. The most common radiographic finding for pincer-type FAI was the COS.
- femoroacetabular impingement
- hip pain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation