Heart failure (HF) is associated with changes in cardiac substrate utilization and energy metabolism, including a decline in high-energy phosphate content, mitochondrial dysfunction, and phosphotransfer enzyme deficiency. A shift toward glucose metabolism was noted in the end stage of HF in animals, although HF in humans may not be associated with a shift toward predominant glucose utilization. Deficiencies of micronutrients are well-established causes of cardiomyopathy. Correction of these deficits can improve heart function. The genes governing the energy metabolism were predominantly underexpressed in nonischemic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but were overexpressed in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been proven to increase cardiac efficiency without increasing myocardial oxygen consumption. Altered myocardial metabolism is normalized by CRT to improve ventricular function.
- cardiac resynchronization therapy
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine