The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which may also foster development of chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms of MetS-induced kidney disease are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent discoveries regarding the impact of MetS on the kidney, particularly on the renal microvasculature and cellular mitochondria. Fundamental manifestations of MetS include IR and adipose tissue expansion, the latter promoting chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that exacerbate IR. Those in turn can elicit various kidney injurious events through endothelial dysfunction, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and adipokine imbalance. Inflammation and IR are also major contributors to microvascular remodeling and podocyte injury. Hence, these events may result in hypertension, albuminuria, and parenchymal damage. In addition, dyslipidemia and excessive nutrient availability may impair mitochondrial function and thereby promote progression of kidney cell damage. Elucidation of the link between MetS and kidney injury may help develop preventative measures and possibly novel therapeutic targets to alleviate and avert development of renal manifestations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Biochemistry, medical
- Physiology (medical)