Histiocytic neoplasms, a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders, primarily include Erdheim-Chester disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Due to their diverse clinical manifestations, the greatest challenge posed by these neoplasms is the establishment of a diagnosis, which often leads to a delay in institution of appropriate therapy. Recent insights into their genomic architecture demonstrating mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal–regulated kinase pathway mutations have now enabled potential treatment with targeted therapies in most patients. This consensus statement represents a joint document from a multidisciplinary group of physicians at Mayo Clinic who specialize in the management of adult histiocytic neoplasms. It consists of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations on when to suspect these neoplasms and what tests to order for the diagnosis and initial evaluation. In addition, it also describes the histopathologic and individual organ manifestations of these neoplasms to help the clinicians in identifying their key features. With uniform guidelines that aid in identifying these neoplasms, we hope to improve the awareness that may lead to their timely and correct diagnosis.
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