Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide, which affects 18.2 million individuals (6.3% of the population) in the United States. Currently, the prevalence of Type 1 DM in the United States is estimated to be 1,000,000 individuals, and 30,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. In addition to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), DM is associated with blindness, accelerated atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, amputation, poor quality of life, and overall lifespan reduction. It accounts for more than 160,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. In 2002, the annual national direct and indirect costs of Types 1 and 2 DM exceeded $130 billion, which included hospital and physician care, laboratory tests, pharmaceutical products, and patient workdays lost because of disability or premature death. Hyperglycemia alone or in concert with hypertension is the primary factor influencing the development of major diabetic complications. From 1990 to 2001, the number of existing ESRD cases to DM increased by more than 300%, while the rate per million populations increased from 167% to 491%. The number is expected to grow 10-fold by 2030 to 1.3 million accounting for 60% of ESRD population. To date, DM is the leading indication for transplantation and is the cause of ESRD in more than 40% of all transplant recipients each year.
- Pancreas transplant
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