Celiac disease is a common (1% prevalence) chronic immune-mediated disorder of the small intestine induced by dietary wheat, barley, and rye. Several hepatic disorders have been described in association with celiac disease. Isolated hypertransaminasemia with nonspecific histologic changes in a liver biopsy is the commonest hepatic presentation of celiac disease. A gluten-free diet normalizes liver enzymes and histologic changes in most patients. Moreover, celiac disease can coexist with autoimmune liver disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Celiac disease has increasingly been reported with a variety of other liver diseases. Thus, the hepatologist needs to consider celiac disease in the differential of abnormal liver blood tests and to be aware of the clinical implications of this frequent disease in patients with liver disorders. The possible mechanisms of liver injury and those common factors that explain the association of celiac disease with liver disorders are discussed. The aims of this article are (1) to review the spectrum and pathogenesis of liver injury related to celiac disease and (2) to provide direction to those caring for patients with chronic liver diseases regarding the detection and effective treatment of celiac disease.
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