The influence of native aortic valve calcium and transcatheter valve oversize on the need for pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve insertion

Fu'ad Al-Azzam, Kevin L. Greason, Chayakrit Krittanawong, Eric E. Williamson, Christopher J. McLeod, Katherine S. King, Verghese Mathew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Objective: Native aortic valve calcium and transcatheter aortic valve oversize have been reported to predict pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve insertion. We reviewed our experience to better understand the association. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 300 patients with no prior permanent pacemaker implantation who underwent transcatheter aortic valve insertion from November 2008 to February 2015. Valve oversize was calculated using area. The end point of the study was 30-day postoperative pacemaker implantation. Results: Patient data included age of 81.1 ± 8.4 years, female sex in 135 patients (45%), atrial fibrillation in 74 patients (24.7%), Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality of 7.6% (interquartile range [IQR], 5.3-10.6), aortic valve calcium score of 2568 (IQR, 1775-3526) Agatston units, and annulus area of 471 ± 82 mm2. Balloon-expandable valves were inserted in 244 patients (81.3%). Transcatheter aortic valve oversize was 12.8% (IQR, 3.9-23.3). Pacemaker implantation was performed in 59 patients (19.7%). Aortic valve calcium score (adjusted P = .275) and transcatheter valve oversize (adjusted P = .833) were not independent risk factors for pacemaker implantation when controlling for preoperative right bundle branch block (adjusted odds ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-8.55; P = .002), implantation of self-expanding valve (adjusted odds ratio, 4.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-10.96; P = .005), left bundle branch block (adjusted P = .331), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (adjusted P = .053), or valve surgery (adjusted P = .111), and PR interval (adjusted P = .350). Conclusions: Right bundle branch block and implantation of a self-expanding prosthesis were predictive of pacemaker implantation, but not native aortic valve score or transcatheter valve oversize.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 29 2016


  • Aortic valve calcium score
  • Bundle branch block
  • Complication
  • Pacemaker
  • Transcatheter aortic valve insertion
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
  • Valve oversize

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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