Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an integral component of the therapeutic arsenal in multiple myeloma. Given that overall survival (OS) is comparable between patients receiving up-front or delayed ASCT, some opt to collect stem cells and postpone transplant until the time of disease progression (i.e., salvage ASCT). It is unknown if induction should be repeated prior to salvage ASCT, or if patients should proceed directly. We identified 234 patients who underwent salvage ASCT at our institution: 188 (80%) were re-induced, whereas 46 (20%) proceeded directly without re-induction. There was no significant difference in time to next therapy (TNT) or OS from Day 0 between the two groups. Patients who were re-induced had a nonsignificant trend towards a higher rate of complete response post-ASCT (45 vs. 33%, p =.12). In multivariate models, re-induction did not affect TNT/OS. In the subgroup of 188 patients who were re-induced, patients with relapsed/refractory disease at the time of ASCT had significantly shorter TNT/OS compared to patients with deeper pre-ASCT responses. In summary, there was no survival difference for patients who were re-induced before salvage ASCT. However, many factors affect the decision to re-induce, and prospective studies would be required to discern its role definitively.
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