The Goldilocks Procedure with and without Implant-Based Immediate Breast Reconstruction in Obese Patients: The Mayo Clinic Experience

Samyd S. Bustos, Minh Doan Nguyen, Christin A. Harless, Nho V. Tran, Jorys Martinez-Jorge, Jason Lin, Antonio J. Forte, William J. Casey, Judy C. Boughey, Sarah A. McLaughlin, Richard Gray, Oscar J. Manrique

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for complications in breast reconstruction. Thus, implant-based immediate breast reconstruction in obese women may be controversial. The authors analyzed obese patients who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy using Wise-pattern incisions (Goldilocks procedure) and compared outcomes between two groups: Goldilocks with immediate breast reconstruction and Goldilocks only. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2or higher who underwent the Goldilocks procedure at the Mayo Clinic Health System from 2012 to 2019. Data were extracted from electronic medical records. Minor complications (partial-thickness wound dehiscence or flap necrosis, or tissue expander/implant malposition) and major complications (full-thickness wound dehiscence or flap necrosis, capsular contracture, tissue expander/implant explantation, or unplanned reoperation or readmission) were compared between groups. Patient-reported outcomes using BREAST-Q questionnaires were also assessed. Results: One hundred five patients (181 breasts) were included. Mean ± SEM age and body mass index were 57.1 ± 10.4 years and 37.9 ± 5.8 kg/m2for the Goldilocks-only group and 51.5 ± 1.1 years and 35.5 ± 0.4 kg/m2for the Goldilocks with immediate breast reconstruction group, respectively. Median follow-up time was 15.1 months (interquartile range, 10.0 to 28.6 months). Overall, 96 breasts underwent the Goldilocks-only procedure and 85 Goldilocks with immediate breast reconstruction. Multivariable analyses revealed a higher rate of minor complications (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.83; 95 percent CI, 1.22 to 7.02) and major complications (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.26; 95 percent CI, 1.25 to 4.24) in the Goldilocks with immediate breast reconstruction group compared with the Goldilocks-only group, at any given time. Patient satisfaction was not statistically different between groups. Conclusions: The Goldilocks procedure is a feasible breast reconstructive option in obese patients; however, when it is performed with immediate breast reconstruction, it is associated with higher rates of complications. For patients with a body mass index of 40 kg/m2or greater, the authors recommend the Goldilocks-only procedure or delayed reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)703-716
Number of pages14
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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