Renal disease affects millions of people worldwide, imposing an enormous financial burden for health-care systems. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria play an important role in the pathogenesis of different forms of renal disease, including genetic defects, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, aging, renal tumors, and transplant nephropathy. Renal mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction affect several cellular pathways, leading to increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, microvascular loss, and fibrosis, all of which compromise renal function. Over recent years, compounds that specifically target mitochondria have emerged as promising therapeutic options for patients with renal disease. Although the most compelling evidence is based on preclinical studies, several compounds are currently being tested in clinical trials. This chapter provides an overview of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in renal disease and summarizes the current knowledge on mitochondria-targeted strategies to attenuate renal disease.