The Efficacy of Novel Commercial Tourniquet Designs for Extremity Hemorrhage Control: Implications for Spontaneous Responder Every Day Carry

Joshua Ellis, Melissa M. Morrow, Alec Belau, Luke S. Sztajnkrycer, Jeffrey N. Wood, Tobias Kummer, Matthew D. Sztajnkrycer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Tourniquets (TQs) save lives. Although military-approved TQs appear more effective than improvised TQs in controlling exsanguinating extremity hemorrhage, their bulk may preclude every day carry (EDC) by civilian lay-providers, limiting availability during emergencies.Study Objective: The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of three novel commercial TQ designs to a military-approved TQ.Methods: Nine Emergency Medicine residents evaluated four different TQ designs: Gen 7 Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT7; control), Stretch Wrap and Tuck Tourniquet (SWAT-T), Gen 2 Rapid Application Tourniquet System (RATS), and Tourni-Key (TK). Popliteal artery flow cessation was determined using a ZONARE ZS3 ultrasound. Steady state maximal generated force was measured for 30 seconds with a thin-film force sensor.Results: Success rates for distal arterial flow cessation were 89% CAT7; 67% SWAT-T; 89% RATS; and 78% TK (H 0.89; P =.83). Mean (SD) application times were 10.4 (SD = 1.7) seconds CAT7; 23.1 (SD = 9.0) seconds SWAT-T; 11.1 (SD = 3.8) seconds RATS; and 20.0 (SD = 7.1) seconds TK (F 9.71; P <.001). Steady state maximal forces were 29.9 (SD = 1.2) N CAT7; 23.4 (SD = 0.8) N SWAT-T; 33.0 (SD = 1.3) N RATS; and 41.9 (SD = 1.3) N TK.Conclusion: All novel TQ systems were non-inferior to the military-approved CAT7. Mean application times were less than 30 seconds for all four designs. The size of these novel TQs may make them more conducive to lay-provider EDC, thereby increasing community resiliency and improving the response to high-threat events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-280
Number of pages5
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Keywords

  • every day carry
  • hemorrhage control
  • mass-casualty incident
  • spontaneous responder
  • tourniquet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency

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