The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone on whole body protein kinetics and skeletal muscle gene expression in healthy elderly men: A randomized controlled trial

Manthos G. Giannoulis, Nicola Jackson, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, K Sreekumaran Nair, Peter H. Sonksen, Finbarr C. Martin, A. Margot Umpleby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Alterations of protein turnover may contribute to the progressive decline of muscle mass with aging. Objective: Our objective was to examine the effects of near-physiological recombinant human GH and/or testosterone (T) administration to older men on whole body protein kinetics and muscle gene expression. Design, Settings, and Participants: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 21 healthy elderly men aged 65-75 yr, was performed. Participants were randomized to receive placebo GH and placebo T, rhGH and placebo T (GH), T and placebo GH (T), or rhGH and T (GHT). Interventions: The leucine rate of appearance (index of proteolysis), nonoxidative leucine disposal rate (an index of protein synthesis), and leucine oxidation rate were measured with an infusion of L-[1-13C] leucine. Muscle biopsies for the measurement of gene expression were performed. Body composition and aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen capacity) were measured. Results: Serum IGF-I levels increased significantly with GH and GHT (P < 0.001) compared with placebo. T increased significantly only in the T group (P = 0.028). Leucine rate of appearance and nonoxidative leucine disposal rate increased with GH (P = 0.015, P = 0.019) and GHT (P = 0.017, P = 0.02), but leucine oxidation did not change significantly in any treatment group. Midthigh muscle mass and maximal oxygen capacity increased (P < 0.04) with GHT only. Expression of muscle function genes did not change significantly, but the within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase of androgen receptor expression in the GHT group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that 6-month treatment with low-dose GH alone or with T in healthy elderly men produces comparable increments in whole body protein turnover and protein synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3066-3074
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume93
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2008

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Gene expression
Leucine
Growth Hormone
Muscle
Testosterone
Skeletal Muscle
Randomized Controlled Trials
Gene Expression
Placebos
Kinetics
Proteins
Muscles
Proteolysis
Oxygen
Oxidation
Muscle Proteins
Biopsy
Androgen Receptors
Body Composition
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone on whole body protein kinetics and skeletal muscle gene expression in healthy elderly men : A randomized controlled trial. / Giannoulis, Manthos G.; Jackson, Nicola; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Sonksen, Peter H.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Umpleby, A. Margot.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 8, 08.2008, p. 3066-3074.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Giannoulis, Manthos G. ; Jackson, Nicola ; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba ; Nair, K Sreekumaran ; Sonksen, Peter H. ; Martin, Finbarr C. ; Umpleby, A. Margot. / The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone on whole body protein kinetics and skeletal muscle gene expression in healthy elderly men : A randomized controlled trial. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008 ; Vol. 93, No. 8. pp. 3066-3074.
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AU - Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba

AU - Nair, K Sreekumaran

AU - Sonksen, Peter H.

AU - Martin, Finbarr C.

AU - Umpleby, A. Margot

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N2 - Context: Alterations of protein turnover may contribute to the progressive decline of muscle mass with aging. Objective: Our objective was to examine the effects of near-physiological recombinant human GH and/or testosterone (T) administration to older men on whole body protein kinetics and muscle gene expression. Design, Settings, and Participants: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 21 healthy elderly men aged 65-75 yr, was performed. Participants were randomized to receive placebo GH and placebo T, rhGH and placebo T (GH), T and placebo GH (T), or rhGH and T (GHT). Interventions: The leucine rate of appearance (index of proteolysis), nonoxidative leucine disposal rate (an index of protein synthesis), and leucine oxidation rate were measured with an infusion of L-[1-13C] leucine. Muscle biopsies for the measurement of gene expression were performed. Body composition and aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen capacity) were measured. Results: Serum IGF-I levels increased significantly with GH and GHT (P < 0.001) compared with placebo. T increased significantly only in the T group (P = 0.028). Leucine rate of appearance and nonoxidative leucine disposal rate increased with GH (P = 0.015, P = 0.019) and GHT (P = 0.017, P = 0.02), but leucine oxidation did not change significantly in any treatment group. Midthigh muscle mass and maximal oxygen capacity increased (P < 0.04) with GHT only. Expression of muscle function genes did not change significantly, but the within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase of androgen receptor expression in the GHT group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that 6-month treatment with low-dose GH alone or with T in healthy elderly men produces comparable increments in whole body protein turnover and protein synthesis.

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