Background: Excess body weight in children is associated with multiple immediate and long-term medical comorbidities. We aimed to identify the degree of reduction in excess body weight associated with cardiometabolic changes (lipid panel, liver function tests, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and fasting blood glucose) in overweight and obese children. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through February 12, 2015. We included randomized controlled trials and cohort studies that evaluated interventions to treat pediatric obesity (medication, surgery, lifestyle, and community-based interventions) with a 6-month follow-up. We used a random effects meta-regression approach to assess the association between body mass index (BMI)/weight and cardiometabolic changes. Results: We included 42 studies (37 randomized controlled trials and five cohorts) enrolling 3807 children (mean age, 12.2 years; weight, 74.7 kg; and BMI, 31.7 kg/m2). Studies had overall moderate to low risk of bias. A 1-mm Hg decrease in SBP was significantly associated with a decrease of 0.16 kg/m2 (P 5 .04) in BMI. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL was significantly associated with a 0.74-kg decrease in weight (P 5 .02). A 1-mg/dL decrease in triglycerides was significantly associated with a 0.1-kg decrease in weight (P 5 .03). The remaining associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Weight reduction in children is associated with significant changes in several cardiometabolic outcomes, particularly HDL, SBP, and triglycerides. The magnitude of improvement may help in setting expectations and may inform shared decision-making and counseling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical