Introduction: While numerous current clinical trials are testing novel salvage therapies (ST) for patients with recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the natural history of this disease state has been poorly defined to date. Herein, we evaluated oncologic outcomes in patients previously treated with BCG and ST who subsequently underwent radical cystectomy (RC). Methods: We identified 378 patients with high-grade NMIBC who received at least one complete induction course of BCG (n = 378) with (n = 62) or without (n = 316) additional ST and who then underwent RC between 2000 and 2018. Oncologic outcomes were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Sensitivity analyses were conducted stratifying by presenting tumor stage, matched 1:3 for receipt vs. no receipt of ST. Results: Patients receiving ST were more likely to initially present with CIS (26% vs. 17%) and less likely with T1 disease (34% vs. 50%, P = 0.06) compared to patients not treated with ST. Receipt of ST was not associated with increased risk of adverse pathology (≥pT2 or pN+) at RC (31% vs. 41%, P = 0.14). Likewise, 5-year cancer-specific survival did not significantly differ between groups on univariable Kaplan-Meier analysis (73% for ST and 74% for no ST, P = 0.7). Moreover, on multivariable analysis, receipt of ST was not significantly associated the risk of death from bladder cancer (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.60–2.09, P = 0.7). Results were unchanged on sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: These data suggest that, in carefully selected patients, ST following BCG for high grade NMIBC does not compromise oncologic outcomes for patients who ultimately undergo RC.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Accepted/In press - 2021|
- Bladder sparing
- Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
- Urothelial neoplasms
ASJC Scopus subject areas