The Alpha-Defensin Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection in the Setting of an Adverse Local Tissue Reaction Secondary to a Failed Metal-on-Metal Bearing or Corrosion at the Head-Neck Junction

Kamil T. Okroj, Tyler E. Calkins, Erdan Kayupov, Michael M. Kheir, Joshua S. Bingham, Christopher P. Beauchamp, Javad Parvizi, Craig J. Della Valle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed. Patients were assessed for PJI using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Thirteen of these subjects had MoM total hip arthroplasty, 9 had ALTR secondary to head-neck corrosion, and 4 had MoM hip resurfacing. Results: Only 1 of the 26 patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for infection. However, 9 hips were alpha-defensin positive, including 1 true positive and 8 that were falsely positive (31%). All 8 of the false positives were also Synovasure positive, although 5 of 8 had an accompanying warning stating the results may be falsely positive due to a low synovial C-reactive protein value. Conclusion: Similar to synovial fluid white blood cell count, alpha-defensin testing is prone to false-positive results in the setting of ALTR. Therefore, we recommend an aggressive approach to ruling out PJI including routine aspiration of all hips with ALTR before revision surgery to integrate the synovial fluid blood cell count, differential, cultures and adjunctive tests like alpha-defensin to allow for accurate diagnosis preoperatively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

alpha-Defensins
Corrosion
Neck
Joints
Metals
Head
Infection
Hip
Synovial Fluid
Blood Cell Count
Polyethylene
Leukocyte Count
Reoperation
Arthroplasty
C-Reactive Protein
Multicenter Studies
Medical Records
Retrospective Studies

Keywords

  • Alpha-defensin
  • Corrosion
  • Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty
  • Periprosthetic joint infection
  • Revision hip arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

The Alpha-Defensin Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection in the Setting of an Adverse Local Tissue Reaction Secondary to a Failed Metal-on-Metal Bearing or Corrosion at the Head-Neck Junction. / Okroj, Kamil T.; Calkins, Tyler E.; Kayupov, Erdan; Kheir, Michael M.; Bingham, Joshua S.; Beauchamp, Christopher P.; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J.

In: Journal of Arthroplasty, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okroj, Kamil T. ; Calkins, Tyler E. ; Kayupov, Erdan ; Kheir, Michael M. ; Bingham, Joshua S. ; Beauchamp, Christopher P. ; Parvizi, Javad ; Della Valle, Craig J. / The Alpha-Defensin Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection in the Setting of an Adverse Local Tissue Reaction Secondary to a Failed Metal-on-Metal Bearing or Corrosion at the Head-Neck Junction. In: Journal of Arthroplasty. 2018.
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title = "The Alpha-Defensin Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection in the Setting of an Adverse Local Tissue Reaction Secondary to a Failed Metal-on-Metal Bearing or Corrosion at the Head-Neck Junction",
abstract = "Background: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed. Patients were assessed for PJI using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Thirteen of these subjects had MoM total hip arthroplasty, 9 had ALTR secondary to head-neck corrosion, and 4 had MoM hip resurfacing. Results: Only 1 of the 26 patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for infection. However, 9 hips were alpha-defensin positive, including 1 true positive and 8 that were falsely positive (31{\%}). All 8 of the false positives were also Synovasure positive, although 5 of 8 had an accompanying warning stating the results may be falsely positive due to a low synovial C-reactive protein value. Conclusion: Similar to synovial fluid white blood cell count, alpha-defensin testing is prone to false-positive results in the setting of ALTR. Therefore, we recommend an aggressive approach to ruling out PJI including routine aspiration of all hips with ALTR before revision surgery to integrate the synovial fluid blood cell count, differential, cultures and adjunctive tests like alpha-defensin to allow for accurate diagnosis preoperatively.",
keywords = "Alpha-defensin, Corrosion, Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty, Periprosthetic joint infection, Revision hip arthroplasty",
author = "Okroj, {Kamil T.} and Calkins, {Tyler E.} and Erdan Kayupov and Kheir, {Michael M.} and Bingham, {Joshua S.} and Beauchamp, {Christopher P.} and Javad Parvizi and {Della Valle}, {Craig J.}",
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AU - Okroj, Kamil T.

AU - Calkins, Tyler E.

AU - Kayupov, Erdan

AU - Kheir, Michael M.

AU - Bingham, Joshua S.

AU - Beauchamp, Christopher P.

AU - Parvizi, Javad

AU - Della Valle, Craig J.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed. Patients were assessed for PJI using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Thirteen of these subjects had MoM total hip arthroplasty, 9 had ALTR secondary to head-neck corrosion, and 4 had MoM hip resurfacing. Results: Only 1 of the 26 patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for infection. However, 9 hips were alpha-defensin positive, including 1 true positive and 8 that were falsely positive (31%). All 8 of the false positives were also Synovasure positive, although 5 of 8 had an accompanying warning stating the results may be falsely positive due to a low synovial C-reactive protein value. Conclusion: Similar to synovial fluid white blood cell count, alpha-defensin testing is prone to false-positive results in the setting of ALTR. Therefore, we recommend an aggressive approach to ruling out PJI including routine aspiration of all hips with ALTR before revision surgery to integrate the synovial fluid blood cell count, differential, cultures and adjunctive tests like alpha-defensin to allow for accurate diagnosis preoperatively.

AB - Background: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed. Patients were assessed for PJI using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Thirteen of these subjects had MoM total hip arthroplasty, 9 had ALTR secondary to head-neck corrosion, and 4 had MoM hip resurfacing. Results: Only 1 of the 26 patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for infection. However, 9 hips were alpha-defensin positive, including 1 true positive and 8 that were falsely positive (31%). All 8 of the false positives were also Synovasure positive, although 5 of 8 had an accompanying warning stating the results may be falsely positive due to a low synovial C-reactive protein value. Conclusion: Similar to synovial fluid white blood cell count, alpha-defensin testing is prone to false-positive results in the setting of ALTR. Therefore, we recommend an aggressive approach to ruling out PJI including routine aspiration of all hips with ALTR before revision surgery to integrate the synovial fluid blood cell count, differential, cultures and adjunctive tests like alpha-defensin to allow for accurate diagnosis preoperatively.

KW - Alpha-defensin

KW - Corrosion

KW - Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

KW - Periprosthetic joint infection

KW - Revision hip arthroplasty

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