The alpha defensin-1 biomarker assay can be used to evaluate the potentially infected total joint arthroplasty

Joshua Bingham, Henry Clarke, Mark Spangehl, Adam Schwartz, Christopher Beauchamp, Brynn Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

96 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) requires a complex approach using various laboratory and clinical criteria. A novel approach to diagnosing these infections uses synovial fluid biomarkers. Alpha defensin-1 (AD-1) is one such synovial-fluid biomarker. However little is known about the performance of the AD-1 assay in the diagnosis of PJI.

QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 assay in a population of patients being evaluated for PJI, using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria as the reference standard, and (2) compare the AD-1 assay with other currently available clinical tests, specifically cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing workup for a PJI at our institution from January to June 2013. Sixty-one AD-1 assays were done in 57 patients. The group included 51 patients with 55 painful joints and six patients who underwent aspiration before second-stage reimplantation. Patients were considered to have a PJI if they met the MSIS criteria. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 synovial fluid assay, and compared it with the sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. There were 19 diagnosed infections in the 61 aspirations, with 21 positive and 40 negative AD-1 assays. There were two false positive and no false negatives AD-1 assays.

RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for the AD-1 assay were 100% (95% CI, 79%-100%) and 95% (95% CI, 83%-99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the other tests ranged from 68% to 95% and 66% to 88%, respectively. The AD-1 assay results outperformed the other tests but did not reach statistical significance except for the sensitivity of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid AD-1 assay exceeded the sensitivity and specificity of the other currently available clinical tests evaluated here but did not reach significance. The AD-1 assay offers another test with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing a PJI especially in the case where the diagnosis of PJI is uncertain, but larger studies will be needed to determine significance and cost effectiveness.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4006-4009
Number of pages4
JournalClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Volume472
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

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alpha-Defensins
Arthroplasty
Joints
Biomarkers
Synovial Fluid
Infection
Sensitivity and Specificity
Blood Sedimentation
C-Reactive Protein
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Count
Replantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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The alpha defensin-1 biomarker assay can be used to evaluate the potentially infected total joint arthroplasty. / Bingham, Joshua; Clarke, Henry; Spangehl, Mark; Schwartz, Adam; Beauchamp, Christopher; Goldberg, Brynn.

In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol. 472, No. 12, 01.12.2014, p. 4006-4009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bingham, Joshua ; Clarke, Henry ; Spangehl, Mark ; Schwartz, Adam ; Beauchamp, Christopher ; Goldberg, Brynn. / The alpha defensin-1 biomarker assay can be used to evaluate the potentially infected total joint arthroplasty. In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2014 ; Vol. 472, No. 12. pp. 4006-4009.
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AU - Clarke, Henry

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AU - Schwartz, Adam

AU - Beauchamp, Christopher

AU - Goldberg, Brynn

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Diagnosing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) requires a complex approach using various laboratory and clinical criteria. A novel approach to diagnosing these infections uses synovial fluid biomarkers. Alpha defensin-1 (AD-1) is one such synovial-fluid biomarker. However little is known about the performance of the AD-1 assay in the diagnosis of PJI.QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 assay in a population of patients being evaluated for PJI, using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria as the reference standard, and (2) compare the AD-1 assay with other currently available clinical tests, specifically cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing workup for a PJI at our institution from January to June 2013. Sixty-one AD-1 assays were done in 57 patients. The group included 51 patients with 55 painful joints and six patients who underwent aspiration before second-stage reimplantation. Patients were considered to have a PJI if they met the MSIS criteria. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 synovial fluid assay, and compared it with the sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. There were 19 diagnosed infections in the 61 aspirations, with 21 positive and 40 negative AD-1 assays. There were two false positive and no false negatives AD-1 assays.RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for the AD-1 assay were 100% (95% CI, 79%-100%) and 95% (95% CI, 83%-99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the other tests ranged from 68% to 95% and 66% to 88%, respectively. The AD-1 assay results outperformed the other tests but did not reach statistical significance except for the sensitivity of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid AD-1 assay exceeded the sensitivity and specificity of the other currently available clinical tests evaluated here but did not reach significance. The AD-1 assay offers another test with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing a PJI especially in the case where the diagnosis of PJI is uncertain, but larger studies will be needed to determine significance and cost effectiveness.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

AB - BACKGROUND: Diagnosing a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) requires a complex approach using various laboratory and clinical criteria. A novel approach to diagnosing these infections uses synovial fluid biomarkers. Alpha defensin-1 (AD-1) is one such synovial-fluid biomarker. However little is known about the performance of the AD-1 assay in the diagnosis of PJI.QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to (1) determine the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 assay in a population of patients being evaluated for PJI, using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria as the reference standard, and (2) compare the AD-1 assay with other currently available clinical tests, specifically cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing workup for a PJI at our institution from January to June 2013. Sixty-one AD-1 assays were done in 57 patients. The group included 51 patients with 55 painful joints and six patients who underwent aspiration before second-stage reimplantation. Patients were considered to have a PJI if they met the MSIS criteria. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the AD-1 synovial fluid assay, and compared it with the sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid cell count, culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. There were 19 diagnosed infections in the 61 aspirations, with 21 positive and 40 negative AD-1 assays. There were two false positive and no false negatives AD-1 assays.RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for the AD-1 assay were 100% (95% CI, 79%-100%) and 95% (95% CI, 83%-99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the other tests ranged from 68% to 95% and 66% to 88%, respectively. The AD-1 assay results outperformed the other tests but did not reach statistical significance except for the sensitivity of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.CONCLUSION: The sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid AD-1 assay exceeded the sensitivity and specificity of the other currently available clinical tests evaluated here but did not reach significance. The AD-1 assay offers another test with high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing a PJI especially in the case where the diagnosis of PJI is uncertain, but larger studies will be needed to determine significance and cost effectiveness.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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