The aging male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Pulsatility and feedback

Johannes D. Veldhuis, Daniel M. Keenan, Peter Y. Liu, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Y. Takahashi, Ajay X. Nehra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Scopus citations


Aging results in insidious decremental changes in hypothalamic, pituitary and gonadal function. The foregoing three main anatomic loci of control are regulated by intermittent time-delayed signal exchange, principally via gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone/estradiol (Te/E2). A mathematical framework is required to embody these dynamics. The present review highlights integrative adaptations in the aging male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as assessed by recent objective ensemble models of the axis as a whole.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-22
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 5 2009


  • Approximate entropy
  • Deconvolution
  • Gonadotropin
  • Mechanism
  • Pulses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology

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