The A3 pulley

Chun Feng Zhao, Peter C. Amadio, Larry Berglund, Kai Nan An

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The tendon-pulley geometry and gliding resistance with and without the A3 pulley were compared in 6 fresh human cadaver fingers. We measured the x- ray images of the distal A2 pulley-tendon angle and proximal A4 pulley-tendon angle with varying degrees of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion between 0° and 120°before and after A3 pulley resection. The gliding resistance of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon under the A2 pulley was also measured at varying tendon-pulley angles. With the A3 pulley removed, the tendon- pulley angle significantly increased compared with the A3 intact state. The gliding resistance between tendon and pulley quadratically increased as the tendon-pulley angle increase from 0°to 60°. These results indicate that the A3 pulley might serve to reduce tendon-pulley gliding resistance by reducing the tendon-pulley angle during finger flexion. (C) 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-276
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2000


  • A2 pulley
  • Flexor tendon
  • Gliding resistance
  • Proximal interphalangeal joint angle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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