The heterogeneous group of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA-uria) syndromes includes several inborn errors of metabolism biochemically characterized by increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. Five distinct types have been recognized: 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type I is an inborn error of leucine catabolism; the additional four types all affect mitochondrial function through different pathomechanisms. We provide an overview of the expanding clinical spectrum of the 3-MGA-uria types and provide the newest insights into the underlying pathomechanisms. A diagnostic approach to the patient with 3-MGA-uria is presented, and we search for the connection between urinary 3-MGA excretion and mitochondrial dysfunction.
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