Test-retest variability of cyclodeviations measured using the double Maddox rod test

Laura Liebermann, David A. Leske, Sarah R. Hatt, Jonathan M Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


The double Maddox rod test is often used to measure cyclodeviations and to monitor change over time. The purpose of this study was to estimate test-retest reliability and the amount of cyclodeviation that would be considered real change using 95% limits of agreement. We retrospectively studied 86 clinically stable patients with double Maddox rod measurements 5-175 days apart (median, 69 days). The range of cyclodeviation at the first measurement was 6° incyclodeviation to 15° excyclodeviation. We calculated the half width of the 95% limits of agreement to be 4.7°, which means that a change of ≥5° in cyclodeviation would be considered a real change. The threshold of 5° should be used when assessing change between two measurements made with double Maddox rods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of AAPOS
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology

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