Teplizumab improves and stabilizes beta cell function in antibody-positive high-risk individuals

Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

We analyzed the effects of a single 14-day course of teplizumab treatment on metabolic function and immune cells among participants in a previously reported randomized controlled trial of nondiabetic relatives at high risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). In an extended follow-up (923-day median) of a previous report of teplizumab treatment, we found that the median times to diagnosis were 59.6 and 27.1 months for teplizumab- and placebo-treated participants, respectively (HR = 0.457, P = 0.01). Fifty percent of teplizumab-treated but only 22% of the placebo-treated remained diabetes-free. Glucose tolerance, C-peptide area under the curve (AUC), and insulin secretory rates were calculated, and relationships to T cell subsets and function were analyzed. Teplizumab treatment improved beta cell function, reflected by average on-study C-peptide AUC (1.94 versus 1.72 pmol/ml; P = 0.006). Drug treatment reversed a decline in insulin secretion before enrollment, followed by stabilization of the declining C-peptide AUC seen with placebo treatment. Proinsulin:C-peptide ratios after drug treatment were similar between the treatment groups. The changes in C-peptide with teplizumab treatment were associated with increases in partially exhausted memory KLRG1+TIGIT+CD8+ T cells (r = 0.44, P = 0.014) that showed reduced secretion of IFN and TNF. A single course of teplizumab had lasting effects on delay of T1D diagnosis and improved beta cell function in high-risk individuals. Changes in CD8+ T cell subsets indicated that partially exhausted effector cells were associated with clinical response. Thus, this trial showed improvement in metabolic responses and delay of diabetes with immune therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereabc8980
JournalScience translational medicine
Volume13
Issue number583
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 3 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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