Background Nationwide studies documenting temporal trends in permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are limited. Methods and Results We selected patients who underwent TAVR between 2012 and 2017 in the National Readmission Database. The primary end point was the 6-year trend in post-TAVR PPMI at index hospitalization and at 30, 90, and 180 days after discharge. The secondary end point was the association between PPMI and in-hospital mortality, stroke, cost, length of stay, and disposition. Among the 89 202 patients who underwent TAVR, 77 405 (86.8%) with no prior pacemaker or defibrillator were included. Patients who required PPMI had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (43.6% versus 38.7%, P<0.001) and conduction abnormalities (28.4% versus 15.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of PPMI during index admission increased from 8.7% in 2012 to 13.2% in 2015, and then decreased to 9.6% in 2017. The incidence of inpatient PPMI within 30 days after discharge increased from 0.5% in 2012 to 1.25% in 2017 (Ptrend<0.001). Inpatient PPMI beyond 30 days remained rare (<0.5%) during the study period. After risk adjustment, PPMI was not associated with in-hospital mortality or stroke but was associated with increased nonhome discharge, longer hospitalization, and higher cost. The incremental expenditure associated with post-TAVR PPMI during index admission increased from $9.6 million to $72.2 million between 2012 and 2017. Conclusions After an upward trend, rates of PPMI after TAVR in the United States stabilized at ~10% in 2016 to 2017, but there was a notable increase in PPMI within 30 days after the index admission. PPMI was not associated with increased in-hospital morbidity or mortality but led to longer hospitalization, higher cost, and more nonhome discharges.
- aortic stenosis
- cardiac resynchronization therapy
- heart block
- permanent pacemaker implantation
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine