Purpose: To commission an open source Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine, “MCsquare” for a synchrotron-based proton machine, integrate it into our in-house C++-based I/O user interface and our web-based software platform, expand its functionalities, and improve calculation efficiency for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods: We commissioned MCsquare using a double Gaussian beam model based on in-air lateral profiles, integrated depth dose of 97 beam energies, and measurements of various spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Then we integrated MCsquare into our C++-based dose calculation code and web-based second check platform “DOSeCHECK.” We validated the commissioned MCsquare based on 12 different patient geometries and compared the dose calculation with a well-benchmarked GPU-accelerated MC (gMC) dose engine. We further improved the MCsquare efficiency by employing the computed tomography (CT) resampling approach. We also expanded its functionality by adding a linear energy transfer (LET)-related model-dependent biological dose calculation. Results: Differences between MCsquare calculations and SOBP measurements were <2.5% (<1.5% for ~85% of measurements) in water. The dose distributions calculated using MCsquare agreed well with the results calculated using gMC in patient geometries. The average 3D gamma analysis (2%/2 mm) passing rates comparing MCsquare and gMC calculations in the 12 patient geometries were 98.0 ± 1.0%. The computation time to calculate one IMPT plan in patients’ geometries using an inexpensive CPU workstation (Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.50 GHz) was 2.3 ± 1.8 min after the variable resolution technique was adopted. All calculations except for one craniospinal patient were finished within 3.5 min. Conclusions: MCsquare was successfully commissioned for a synchrotron-based proton beam therapy delivery system and integrated into our web-based second check platform. After adopting CT resampling and implementing LET model-dependent biological dose calculation capabilities, MCsquare will be sufficiently efficient and powerful to achieve Monte Carlo-based and LET-guided robust optimization in IMPT, which will be done in the future studies.
- Monte Carlo method
- dose calculation
- intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT)
- robust optimization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging