Experimental pulmonary metastases have been successfully treated by adoptive transfer of tumor-sensitized T cells from perforin knockout (KO) or Fas/APO-1 ligand(KO) mice, suggesting a prominent role for secretion of cytokines such as IFN-γ. In the present study we confirmed that rejection of established methylcholanthrene-205 (MCA-205) pulmonary metastases displayed a requirement for T cell IFN-γ expression. However, this requirement could be obviated by transferring larger numbers of tumor-sensitized IFN-γ(KO) T cells or by immunosensitizing sublethal irradiation (500 rad) of the host before adoptive therapy. Extrapulmonary tumors (MCA-205 s.c. and intracranial) that required adjunct sublethal irradiation for treatment efficacy also displayed no requirement for host or T cell expression of IFN-γ. Nonetheless, rejection of MCA-205 s.c. tumors and i.p. EL-4 tumors, but not MCA-205 pulmonary or intracranial tumors, displayed a significant requirement for T cell perforin expression (i.e., CTL participation). The capacity of T cells to lyse tumor targets and secrete IFN-γ in vitro before adoptive transfer was nonpredictive of the roles of these activities in subsequent tumor rejection. Adoptive therapy studies employing KO mice are therefore indispensable for revealing a diversity of tumor rejection mechanisms that may lack in vitro correlation due to delays in their induction. Seemingly contradictory KO data from different studies are reconciled by the capacity of anti-tumor T cells to rely on alternative mechanisms when treated in larger numbers, the variable participation of CTL at different anatomic locations of tumor, and the apparent capacity of sublethal irradiation to provide a therapeutic alternative to host or T cell IFN-γ production.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy