T cell infiltration of the prostate induced by androgen withdrawal in patients with prostate cancer

Maria Mercader, Barbara K. Bodner, Micheal T. Moser, Pamela S. Kwon, Eugene S.Y. Park, Ryan G. Manecke, Thomas M. Ellis, Eva M. Wojcik, Damu Yang, Robert C. Flanigan, W. Bedford Waters, W. Martin Kast, Eugene D. Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

285 Scopus citations


Manipulations capable of breaking host tolerance to induce tissue-specific T cell-mediated inflammation are of central importance to tumor immunotherapy and our understanding of autoimmunity. We demonstrate that androgen ablative therapy induces profuse T cell infiltration of benign glands and tumors in human prostates. T cell infiltration is readily apparent after 7-28 days of therapy and is comprised predominantly of a response by CD4+ T cells and comparatively fewer CD8+ T cells. Also, T cells within the treated prostate exhibit restricted TCR Vβ gene usage, consistent with a local oligoclonal response. Recruitment/activation of antigen-presenting cells in treated prostate tissues may contribute to local T cell activation. The induction of T cell infiltration in prostate tissues treated with androgen ablation may have implications for the immunotherapeutic treatment of prostate cancer as well as other hormone-sensitive malignancies, including breast carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14565-14570
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number25
StatePublished - Dec 4 2001


  • Adenocarcinoma of the prostate
  • Antigen-presenting cell
  • CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Hormone therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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