Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection appears to be more common than previously thought. HEV seroprevalence in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) is unclear with a range from 0% to 44%. In addition, risk factors of transmission of HEV in patients on haemodialysis are unknown. Aim: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of HEV seroprevalence in HD patients compared with controls. Methods: A systematic search of several databases identified all observational studies with comparative arms. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A random-effects model was used for pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of positive anti-HEV IgG in both groups. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed with appropriate tests. Results: We identified 31 studies from 17 countries between 1994 and 2016. Sixteen studies were judged to have adequate quality and 15 to have moderate limitations. HEV infection was more prevalent in patients on haemodialysis compared with controls (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.79-3.40, I2 = 75.2%, P < .01). We conducted several subgroup analyses without difference in results. Egger regression test did not suggest publication bias (P = .83). Specific risk factors of HEV transmission in patients on haemodialysis were not clearly identified. Conclusion: Hepatitis E virus infection is more prevalent in patients on haemodialysis compared with non-haemodialysis control groups. Further studies are needed to determine risk factors of acquisition, impact on health, and risk for chronic HEV especially among those patients going to receive organ transplantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)