Background: Concurrent resection of the primary cancer and synchronous colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) was evaluated for differences in outcomes following stratification of both the liver and colorectal resection. Methods: Consecutive cases of synchronous resection of both the CRC primary and CRCLM were reviewed retrospectively at a single, high-volume institution over a 17-year period (2000–2017). Results: 273 patients underwent simultaneous resection of CRCLM. The distribution of the primary lesion was similar between the colon (52.4%) and rectum (47.6%), while 46.9% of patients had bilobar liver disease. Major liver/major colorectal resection (n = 24) were significantly more likely to experience colorectal specific morbidity (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.56–10.15, p = 0.004), liver specific morbidity (OR 7.4, 95% CI 2.22–24.71, p = 0.001), total morbidity (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.18–7.18, p = 0.020) and 90-day mortality (OR 5.50, 95% CI 1.27–23.81, p = 0.023). Failure to receive adjuvant chemotherapy secondary to postoperative morbidity was associated with significantly worsened survival (HR for death 5.91, 95% CI 1.59–22.01, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Postoperative morbidity precluding the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with an increase in mortality. Combining a major liver with major colorectal resection is associated with a significant increase in major morbidity and 90-day mortality, and should be avoided.
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