Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is known for its highly vascular phenotype which is associated with elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF). Accordingly, VEGF has been an attractive target for antiangiogenic therapies in ccRCC. Two major strategies have hitherto been utilized for VEGF-targeted antiangiogenic therapies: targeting VEGF by antibodies, ligand traps or aptamers, and targeting the VEGF receptor signaling via antibodies or small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In the present article we utilized two entirely different approaches: targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that is known to be involved in VEGF synthesis, and disruption of VEGF/Neuroplin-1 (NRP1) axis that is known to activate proangiogenic and pro-tumorigenic signaling in endothelial and tumor cells, respectively. Everolimus (E) and a small-molecule inhibitor EG00229 (G) were used for the inhibition of mTOR and the disruption of VEGF/NRP1 axis, respectively. We also exploited a liposomal formulation decorated with a proprietary tumor-targeting-peptide (TTP) to simultaneously deliver these two agents in a tumor-targeted manner. The TTP-liposomes encapsulating both Everolimus and EG00229 (EG-L) demonstrated higher in vitro and in vivo growth retardation than the single drug-loaded liposomes (E-L and G-L) in two different ccRCC models and led to a noticeable reduction in lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, EG-L displayed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in a highly aggressive syngeneic immune-competent mouse model of ccRCC developed in Balb/c mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates an effective approach to achieve improved therapeutic outcome in ccRCC.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research