Context: Inactivating germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are linked to pituitary adenoma predisposition. Here, we present the youngest known patient with AIP-related pituitary adenoma. Case Description: The patient presented at the age of 4 years with pituitary apoplexy and left ptosis with severe visual loss following a 1-year history of abdominal pain, headaches, and rapid growth. His IGF-1 level was 5× the upper limit of normal, and his random GH level was 1200 ng/mL. MRI showed a 43 × 24 × 35-mm adenoma with suprasellar extension invading the left cavernous sinus (Knosp grade 4). After transsphenoidal surgery, histology showed a grade 2A sparsely granulated somatotropinoma with negative O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and positive vascular endothelial growth factor staining. Genetic testing identified a heterozygous germline nonsense AIP mutation (p.Arg81Ter). Exome sequencing of the tumor revealed that it had lost the entire maternal chromosome-11, rendering it hemizygous for chromosome-11 and therefore lacking functional copies of AIP in the tumor. He was started on octreotide, but because the tumor rapidly regrew and IGF-1 levels were unchanged, temozolomide was initiated, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy was administered 5 months after surgery. Two months later, bevacizumab was added, resulting in excellent tumor response. Although these treatments stabilized tumor growth over 4 years, IGF-1 was normalized only after pegvisomant treatment, although access to this medication was intermittent. At 3.5 years of follow-up, gamma knife treatment was administered, and pegvisomant dose increase was indicated. Conclusion: Multimodal treatment with surgery, long-acting octreotide, radiotherapy, temozolomide, bevacizumab, and pegvisomant can control genetically driven, aggressive, childhood-onset somatotropinomas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical