Patients with liver disease often undergo surgery. With the increasing prevalence of liver disease and improved survival due to newer medications and treatments, a growing number of patients with liver disease will require preoperative assessment. Because of the multiple physiological roles of the liver, hepatic dysfunction places these patients at an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The precise risks associated with specific liver diseases are poorly understood but are greater with increased impairment of hepatic function. Identifying preexisting problems that could be optimally and appropriately managed before surgery (eg, coagulation status, intravascular volume, renal function, electrolytes, cardiovascular status, and nutrition) may reduce these risks and decrease mortality in patients with liver disease undergoing surgery.
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