Old world monkey TRIM5α is a host factor that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Previously, we reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5α (RhTRIM5α) restricts HIV-1 production by inducing degradation of precursor Gag. Since suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is known to enhance HIV-1 production by rescuing Gag from lysosomal degradation, we examined if SOCS1 is involved in RhTRIM5α-mediated late restriction. Over-expression of SOCS1 restored HIV-1 production in the presence of RhTRIM5α to a level comparable to that in the absence of RhTRIM5α in terms of titer and viral protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SOCS1 physically interacted with RhTRIM5α. Over-expression of SOCS1 affected RhTRIM5α expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was not reversed by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, SOCS1 and RhTRIM5α were detected in virus-like particles. These results suggest that SOCS1 alleviates RhTRIM5α-mediated regulation in the late phase of HIV-1 life cycle probably due to the destabilization of RhTRIM5α.
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