Suppression of glucose production and stimulation of insulin secretion by physiological concentrations of ketone bodies in man

J. M. Miles, M. W. Haymond, J. E. Gerich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To determine the mechanism by which ketone bodies decrease plasma glucose in man, seven normal postabsorptive volunteers were infused for 3 h with β-hydroxybutyrate. Total plasma ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate plus acetoacetate) increased to levels (~2.3 mM) observed after a 2- to 3-day fast in normal subjects. Plasma glucose decreased 10% concomitant with decreases of 25% and 10%, respectively, in the rates of glucose production and glucose utilization determined isotopically with [3-3H]glucose. Plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were unaltered, but plasma C-peptide levels increased from 2.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml to a maximum of 3.9 ± 0.2 ng/ml at 30 min (P<0.01) and remained significantly increased for more than 2 h. Plasma alanine decreased approximately 14% (P<0.05), while plasma lactate increased 25% (P<0.01) so that there was no net decrease in the combined levels of these gluconeogenic substrates. These results demonstrate that physiological increments in circulating ketone body concentrations decrease plasma glucose in normal man by suppressing glucose production, an effect which can be explained by the stimulation of insulin secretion being reflected only in changes in plasma C-peptide. Thus, changes in pancreatic B cell function not sufficient to alter peripheral plasma insulin levels may cause significant changes in hepatic glucose production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34-37
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume52
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1981

Fingerprint

Ketone Bodies
Insulin
Plasmas
Glucose
Hydroxybutyrates
C-Peptide
Insulin-Secreting Cells
Glucagon
Alanine
Lactic Acid
Healthy Volunteers
Cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Suppression of glucose production and stimulation of insulin secretion by physiological concentrations of ketone bodies in man. / Miles, J. M.; Haymond, M. W.; Gerich, J. E.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1981, p. 34-37.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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