Superior vena cava and hepatic vein Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults

C. P. Appleton, L. K. Hatle, R. L. Popp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

149 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound recordings of blood flow velocity in the superior vena cava were made in 40 healthy adults (aged 22 to 69 years) during both normal respiration and 10 second episodes of apnea. The forward flow velocity pattern was biphasic, with systolic flow velocity greater than diastolic flow velocity. During apnea, peak flow velocities ranged from 32 to 69 cm/s (mean 45.7 ± 8.4) during systole and from 6 to 45 cm/s (mean 27.2 ± 8.3) in early diastole. Systolic flow velocity integrals also exceeded diastolic values. With atrial systole (A wave), forward flow velocities were reduced or flow was reversed. Thirty-nine of 40 subjects had A wave flow reversal during apnea, and in these the ratio of reverse to total forward flow velocity integrals ranged from 1 to 16% (mean 6 ± 4%). Compared with values during apnea, there were higher mean values with inspiration and lower values with expiration for velocities and flow velocity integrals. Hepatic vein tracings, when adequate (12 of 40 subjects), showed forward flow characteristics similar to those from the superior vena cava, but with more frequent and larger A wave and ventricular end-systole (atrial V wave) flow reversals. Superior vena cava flow velocity variables were calculated in subgroups to assess the effects of age, respiratory pattern and increased venous return. This study defines normal Doppler ultrasound superior vena cava and hepatic vein flow velocities and their variation with respiration in healthy adults. These results can be used for comparison with patterns found in disease states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1032-1039
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume10
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1987
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Superior Vena Cava
Hepatic Veins
Doppler Echocardiography
Apnea
Systole
Doppler Ultrasonography
Respiration
Diastole
Blood Flow Velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

Cite this

Superior vena cava and hepatic vein Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults. / Appleton, C. P.; Hatle, L. K.; Popp, R. L.

In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1987, p. 1032-1039.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Appleton, C. P. ; Hatle, L. K. ; Popp, R. L. / Superior vena cava and hepatic vein Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1987 ; Vol. 10, No. 5. pp. 1032-1039.
@article{da2b37eb1e1640adb49db416cc61e4d3,
title = "Superior vena cava and hepatic vein Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults",
abstract = "Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound recordings of blood flow velocity in the superior vena cava were made in 40 healthy adults (aged 22 to 69 years) during both normal respiration and 10 second episodes of apnea. The forward flow velocity pattern was biphasic, with systolic flow velocity greater than diastolic flow velocity. During apnea, peak flow velocities ranged from 32 to 69 cm/s (mean 45.7 ± 8.4) during systole and from 6 to 45 cm/s (mean 27.2 ± 8.3) in early diastole. Systolic flow velocity integrals also exceeded diastolic values. With atrial systole (A wave), forward flow velocities were reduced or flow was reversed. Thirty-nine of 40 subjects had A wave flow reversal during apnea, and in these the ratio of reverse to total forward flow velocity integrals ranged from 1 to 16{\%} (mean 6 ± 4{\%}). Compared with values during apnea, there were higher mean values with inspiration and lower values with expiration for velocities and flow velocity integrals. Hepatic vein tracings, when adequate (12 of 40 subjects), showed forward flow characteristics similar to those from the superior vena cava, but with more frequent and larger A wave and ventricular end-systole (atrial V wave) flow reversals. Superior vena cava flow velocity variables were calculated in subgroups to assess the effects of age, respiratory pattern and increased venous return. This study defines normal Doppler ultrasound superior vena cava and hepatic vein flow velocities and their variation with respiration in healthy adults. These results can be used for comparison with patterns found in disease states.",
author = "Appleton, {C. P.} and Hatle, {L. K.} and Popp, {R. L.}",
year = "1987",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "10",
pages = "1032--1039",
journal = "Journal of the American College of Cardiology",
issn = "0735-1097",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Superior vena cava and hepatic vein Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults

AU - Appleton, C. P.

AU - Hatle, L. K.

AU - Popp, R. L.

PY - 1987

Y1 - 1987

N2 - Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound recordings of blood flow velocity in the superior vena cava were made in 40 healthy adults (aged 22 to 69 years) during both normal respiration and 10 second episodes of apnea. The forward flow velocity pattern was biphasic, with systolic flow velocity greater than diastolic flow velocity. During apnea, peak flow velocities ranged from 32 to 69 cm/s (mean 45.7 ± 8.4) during systole and from 6 to 45 cm/s (mean 27.2 ± 8.3) in early diastole. Systolic flow velocity integrals also exceeded diastolic values. With atrial systole (A wave), forward flow velocities were reduced or flow was reversed. Thirty-nine of 40 subjects had A wave flow reversal during apnea, and in these the ratio of reverse to total forward flow velocity integrals ranged from 1 to 16% (mean 6 ± 4%). Compared with values during apnea, there were higher mean values with inspiration and lower values with expiration for velocities and flow velocity integrals. Hepatic vein tracings, when adequate (12 of 40 subjects), showed forward flow characteristics similar to those from the superior vena cava, but with more frequent and larger A wave and ventricular end-systole (atrial V wave) flow reversals. Superior vena cava flow velocity variables were calculated in subgroups to assess the effects of age, respiratory pattern and increased venous return. This study defines normal Doppler ultrasound superior vena cava and hepatic vein flow velocities and their variation with respiration in healthy adults. These results can be used for comparison with patterns found in disease states.

AB - Pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound recordings of blood flow velocity in the superior vena cava were made in 40 healthy adults (aged 22 to 69 years) during both normal respiration and 10 second episodes of apnea. The forward flow velocity pattern was biphasic, with systolic flow velocity greater than diastolic flow velocity. During apnea, peak flow velocities ranged from 32 to 69 cm/s (mean 45.7 ± 8.4) during systole and from 6 to 45 cm/s (mean 27.2 ± 8.3) in early diastole. Systolic flow velocity integrals also exceeded diastolic values. With atrial systole (A wave), forward flow velocities were reduced or flow was reversed. Thirty-nine of 40 subjects had A wave flow reversal during apnea, and in these the ratio of reverse to total forward flow velocity integrals ranged from 1 to 16% (mean 6 ± 4%). Compared with values during apnea, there were higher mean values with inspiration and lower values with expiration for velocities and flow velocity integrals. Hepatic vein tracings, when adequate (12 of 40 subjects), showed forward flow characteristics similar to those from the superior vena cava, but with more frequent and larger A wave and ventricular end-systole (atrial V wave) flow reversals. Superior vena cava flow velocity variables were calculated in subgroups to assess the effects of age, respiratory pattern and increased venous return. This study defines normal Doppler ultrasound superior vena cava and hepatic vein flow velocities and their variation with respiration in healthy adults. These results can be used for comparison with patterns found in disease states.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023280804&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023280804&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 3668102

AN - SCOPUS:0023280804

VL - 10

SP - 1032

EP - 1039

JO - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

SN - 0735-1097

IS - 5

ER -