Subarachnoid hemorrhage rebleeding in the first 24 h is associated with external ventricular drain placement and higher grade on presentation: Cohort study

Victor M. Lu, Christopher S. Graffeo, Avital Perry, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Amanda M. Casabella, Eelco F.M. Wijdicks, Giuseppe Lanzino, Alejandro A. Rabinstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Rebleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) confers a poor prognosis; however, risk factors and differential outcomes associated with early rebleeding in the first 24 h after symptom presentation are incompletely understood. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all aSAH presenting to our institution between 2001 and 2016 was performed. Early rebleeding events were defined as clinical neurologic decline with radiographically confirmed acute intracranial hemorrhage within 24 h after symptom presentation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess clinical associations, with a specific focus on baseline Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and modified Fisher scores. Results: Of 471 aSAH cases, 33 (7%) experienced early rebleeding. Multivariate regression identified extraventricular drain (EVD) placement (OR = 2.16, P = 0.04) and WFNS 3–5 (OR = 2.69, P = 0.02) as significant predictors of early rebleeding. Good functional outcomes were observed in 8 patients with early rebleeding (24%), all of whom underwent aneurysm treatment. Higher SAH grade prior to rebleeding (WFNS 3–5) was significantly associated with increased odds of an unfavorable functional outcome (OR = 8.09, P < 0.01). Anticoagulation, aneurysm size and location were not significantly associated with either early rebleeding incidence or functional outcome. Conclusions: Early rebleeding in aSAH is associated with unfavorable functional outcomes. EVD placement and higher SAH grade on presentation appear to be significantly and independently associated with increased risk of rebleeding within first 24 h, as well as unfavorable long-term functional outcome; however, the clinical benefit of hyper-acute aneurysm treatment requires further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Volume81
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Keywords

  • 24 h
  • Aneurysm
  • Early
  • Outcome
  • Predictor
  • Rebleeding
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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