The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that signals in T lymphocytes by forming a heterodimer with the TCR. CXCR4 and TCR functions are consequently highly cross regulated, affecting T cell immune activation, cytokine secretion, and T cell migration. The CXCR4-TCR heterodimer stimulates T cell migration and activation of the ERK MAPK and downstream AP-1-dependent cytokine transcription in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), the sole chemokine ligand of CXCR4. These responses require Gi-type G proteins as well as TCR ITAM domains and the ZAP70 tyrosine kinase, thus indicating that the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer signals to integrate G protein-coupled receptor-associated and TCR-associated signaling molecules in response to SDF-1. Yet, the phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes responsible for coupling the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer to distinct downstream cellular responses are incompletely characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that PLC activity is required for SDF-1 to induce ERK activation, migration, and CXCR4 endocytosis in human T cells. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer uses PLC-b3 to activate the Ras-ERK pathway and increase intracellular calcium ion concentrations, whereas PLC-γ1 is dispensable for these outcomes. In contrast, PLC-γ1, but not PLC-β3, is required for SDF-1-mediated migration via a mechanism independent of LAT. These results increase understanding of the signaling mechanisms employed by the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer, characterize new roles for PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 in T cells, and suggest that multiple PLCs may also be activated downstream of other chemokine receptors to distinctly regulate migration versus other signaling functions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy