Dystonia is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by twisting, turning, and posturing. This disorder may affect a single body part or may be more generalized, but the pathophysiology remains unclear. The treatment of choice for most of the focal dystonias is botulinum toxin injections, although oral medications occasionally may be beneficial. Surgical treatment of dystonia may be performed peripherally or centrally but is usually reserved for patients in whom other forms of therapy fail.
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