Venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are the most common causes of pulsatile tinnitus. These conditions include causes of turbulence within normally located veins and sinuses, and abnormally enlarged or abnormally located veins in close transmissive proximity to the conductive auditory pathway. Such disorders include pathologic abnormalities of the lateral sinus (transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus wall anomalies), abnormalities and variants of the emissary veins, and anomalies of the jugular bulb and jugular vein. Despite being the most common causes for pulsatile tinnitus, venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are often overlooked in the workup of pulsatile tinnitus. Such oversights can result in delayed patient care and prolonged patient discomfort. Advances in both cerebrovascular imaging and endovascular techniques allow for improved diagnostic accuracy and an increasing range of endovascular therapeutic options to address pulsatile tinnitus. This review illustrates the venous causes of pulsatile tinnitus and demonstrates the associated endovascular treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging