Purpose: Leverage the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to evaluate trends in management of nonmetastatic squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the rectum and their effect on survival for this uncommon tumor. Methods and Materials: Retrospective data was obtained from the NCDB for patients diagnosed with SCC of the rectum between 2004 and 2014, including cT1-4, cN0-2, cM0 tumors (cohort A, n = 2296). A subgroup analysis was performed on locally advanced tumors (cT1-T2, N+ or cT3, N any, subcohort B, n = 883), treated with chemoradiation (n = 706) or trimodality therapy (n = 177) including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Pathological complete response rate following neoadjuvant therapy was obtained. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to generate hazard ratios (HR) investigating factors associated with overall survival. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method was used to estimate overall surviving proportion at 5 and 10 years. Results: The K-M estimated 5 and 10 year overall survival for stage I disease was 71.3% and 57.8%, respectively; stage II disease was 57.0% and 38.9%, respectively; stage III disease was 57.8% and 41.5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, higher cT category (P < 0.001) resulted in worse survival. For locally advanced tumors (subcohort B), there was no significant difference in survival between chemoradiation alone compared to trimodality therapy (P = 0.909 on multivariate analysis). Conclusions: Most providers manage locally advanced SCC of the rectum similar to anal cancer, which results in equivalent overall survival and spares patients from the additional morbidity associated with surgical resection.
- National Cancer Database
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research