Purpose: To evaluate whether noninvasive molecular imaging technologies targeting myeloperoxidase (MPO) can reveal early inflammation associated with spinal cord injury after thoracic aortic ischemia-reperfusion (TAR) in mice. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. C57BL6 mice that were 8-10 weeks old underwent TAR (n = 55) or sham (n = 26) surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n = 6) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) (n = 15) studies targeting MPO activity were performed after intravenous injection of MPO sensors (bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-tetraazacyclododecane [HT]-diethyneletriaminepentaacetic acid [DTPA]-gadolinium or indium 111-bis-5-HT-DTPA, respectively). Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were used to identify myeloid cells and neuronal loss. Proinflammatory cytokines, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed by using nonparametric tests and the Pearson correlation coefficient. P < .05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. Results: Myeloid cells infiltrated into the injured cord at 6 and 24 hours after TAR. MR imaging confirmed the presence of ischemic lesions associated with mild MPO-mediated enhancement in the thoracolumbar spine at 24 hours compared with the sham procedure. SPECT/CT imaging of MPO activity showed marked MPO-sensor retention at 6 hours (P = .003) that continued to increase at 24 hours after TAR (P = .0001). The number of motor neurons decreased substantially at 24 hours after TAR (P < .01), which correlated inversely with in vivo inflammatory changes detected at molecular imaging (r = 0.64, P = .0099). MPO was primarily secreted by neutrophils, followed by lymphocyte antigen 6 complexhigh monocytes and/or macrophages. There were corresponding increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines KC (P = .0001) and IL-6 (P = .0001) that mirrored changes in MPO activity. Conclusion: MPO is a suitable imaging biomarker for identifying and tracking inflammatory damage in the spinal cord after TAR in a mouse model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging