Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland

Akira Kawashima, Carl M. Sandler, Elliot K. Fishman, Chusilp Charnsangavej, Kotaro Yasumori, Hiroshi Honda, Randy D. Ernst, Naoki Takahashi, Bharat K. Raval, Kouji Masuda, Stanford M. Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Computed tomography (CT) plays a leading role in the evaluation of nonmalignant disease of the adrenal gland. CT is highly accurate in the localization of adrenal masses in patients with diseases associated with hyperfunctioning adrenal glands such as Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease, Conn syndrome, adrenal tumors leading to virilization or feminization, and pheochromocytomas. CT permits a specific diagnosis of acute or subacute adrenal hematoma and myelolipoma. Hematomas are round to oval and have increased attenuation (50-90 HU) that decreases on follow-up CT scans. Myelolipomas typically manifest as a well-defined suprarenal mass with an attenuation of -30 to -115 HU. Adrenal cysts are usually round to oval and manifest as a hypoattenuating mass with a smooth, thin wall. CT is useful in the evaluation of patients with Addison disease, particularly the subacute form secondary to tuberculosis or disseminated histoplasmosis. Findings typically include bilateral adrenal enlargement with a central necrotic area of hypoattenuation and peripheral enhancement. Thin-section unenhanced CT permits accurate measurement of attenuation and can be used to differentiate adrenal adenoma from metastasis in a cancer patient with an indeterminate mass: Attenuation of 10 HU or less usually indicates adenoma rather than cancer. If the mass is found incidentally at contrast material-enhanced CT, delayed scans obtained as early as 5-15 minutes after intravenous administration of contrast material appear to have comparable accuracy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-412
Number of pages20
JournalRadiographics
Volume18
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1998
Externally publishedYes

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Adrenal Gland Diseases
Tomography
Myelolipoma
Hematoma
Adenoma
Contrast Media
Feminization
Virilism
Addison Disease
Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion
Histoplasmosis
Hyperaldosteronism
Glandular and Epithelial Neoplasms
Cushing Syndrome
Pheochromocytoma
Adrenal Glands
Intravenous Administration
Cysts
Neoplasms
Tuberculosis

Keywords

  • Adrenal gland, CT, 86.1211
  • Adrenal gland, cysts, 86.31
  • Adrenal gland, diseases, 86.2053, 86.23, 86.54
  • Adrenal gland, hemorrhage, 86.546
  • Adrenal gland, neoplasms, 86.31, 86.328
  • Pheochromocytoma, 86.328

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Kawashima, A., Sandler, C. M., Fishman, E. K., Charnsangavej, C., Yasumori, K., Honda, H., ... Goldman, S. M. (1998). Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland. Radiographics, 18(2), 393-412.

Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland. / Kawashima, Akira; Sandler, Carl M.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Yasumori, Kotaro; Honda, Hiroshi; Ernst, Randy D.; Takahashi, Naoki; Raval, Bharat K.; Masuda, Kouji; Goldman, Stanford M.

In: Radiographics, Vol. 18, No. 2, 03.1998, p. 393-412.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kawashima, A, Sandler, CM, Fishman, EK, Charnsangavej, C, Yasumori, K, Honda, H, Ernst, RD, Takahashi, N, Raval, BK, Masuda, K & Goldman, SM 1998, 'Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland', Radiographics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 393-412.
Kawashima A, Sandler CM, Fishman EK, Charnsangavej C, Yasumori K, Honda H et al. Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland. Radiographics. 1998 Mar;18(2):393-412.
Kawashima, Akira ; Sandler, Carl M. ; Fishman, Elliot K. ; Charnsangavej, Chusilp ; Yasumori, Kotaro ; Honda, Hiroshi ; Ernst, Randy D. ; Takahashi, Naoki ; Raval, Bharat K. ; Masuda, Kouji ; Goldman, Stanford M. / Spectrum of CT Findings in Nonmalignant Disease of the Adrenal Gland. In: Radiographics. 1998 ; Vol. 18, No. 2. pp. 393-412.
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