Overexpressed Aurora A, amplified centrosomes, and aneuploidy are salient features of estrogen-induced mammary preinvasive lesions and tumors in female August-Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. Intimately involved in these events are cyclins and their associated cyclin- dependent kinase (CDK) partners. Cyclin E1·CDK2 over-expression plays an important dual role in late G1/S phase of the cell cycle in cancer cells. It increases DNA replication providing growth advantage to cancer cells and facilitates aberrant centrosome duplication, generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy leading to tumor development. Presented herein, a 24.0- and 45.0-fold elevation in cyclin E1 and CDK2 was found in 17β-estradiol (E 2)-induced ACI rat mammary tumors (MTs), respectively. Cyclin E·CDK2 positive staining was confined to the large round cells found within focal dysplasias, ductal carcinomas in situ, and invasive MTs. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase activity of these tumors revealed that these cell cycle entities are functional. When mammary tissue derived from untreated normal, E 2-induced hyperplasia and primary tumors were normalized to cyclin E1 levels, low molecular weight (LMW) cyclin E1 forms (33- and 45-kDa) were detected in all of these tissue groups. Moreover, increasing concentrations of protease inhibitor in tissue lysates resulted in a marked reduction of LMW forms, indicating that the presence of cyclin E1 LMW forms can be markedly reduced. Significant increases in cyclin E1 mRNA (2.1-fold) were detected in primary ACI rat E 2-induced breast tumors, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a 20% amplification of the cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1). Collectively, these results support the involvement of cyclin E1·CDK2 in centrosome overduplication during each stage of E 2-induced mammary tumorigenesis.
- Aci rat
- Breast cancer
- Cyclin E1·CDK2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Cancer Research