Smoking and Parkinson's disease: An age-dependent risk effect?

Christophe Tzourio, Walter A Rocca, M. M. Breteler, M. Baldereschi, J. F. Dartigues, S. Lopez-Pousa, J. M. Manubens-Bertran, A. Alpérovitch

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Abstract

We studied the association between smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD) through a case-control study. Several studies have shown an inverse association between smoking and PD. This association has been interpreted as spurious by some investigators, and as real and causal by others. Several other studies did not confirm the inverse association. We included 193 prevalent cases of PD ascertained in five European prevalence surveys that followed a two-phase design of screening and clinical examination. Each case was matched by center, age (±2 years), and gender to three control subjects drawn from the same populations (N = 579). Information on smoking was obtained through direct or proxy interview. Overall, there was no association between ever smoking and PD (odds ratio = 1.1; p = 0.6). Analyses stratified by age showed that ever smoking was associated with a decreased risk of PD in the younger individuals (odds ratio = 0.4; p = 0.03) and with a significant trend of increasing risk with advancing age (p = 0.003). The risk of PD in relation to smoking is strongly modified by age; smoking may be protective in the younger cases but not in the older cases. This finding may explain the conflicting results from previous studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1267-1272
Number of pages6
JournalNeurology
Volume49
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1997

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Parkinson Disease
Smoking
Odds Ratio
Proxy
Case-Control Studies
Research Personnel
Interviews
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Tzourio, C., Rocca, W. A., Breteler, M. M., Baldereschi, M., Dartigues, J. F., Lopez-Pousa, S., ... Alpérovitch, A. (1997). Smoking and Parkinson's disease: An age-dependent risk effect? Neurology, 49(5), 1267-1272.

Smoking and Parkinson's disease : An age-dependent risk effect? / Tzourio, Christophe; Rocca, Walter A; Breteler, M. M.; Baldereschi, M.; Dartigues, J. F.; Lopez-Pousa, S.; Manubens-Bertran, J. M.; Alpérovitch, A.

In: Neurology, Vol. 49, No. 5, 11.1997, p. 1267-1272.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tzourio, C, Rocca, WA, Breteler, MM, Baldereschi, M, Dartigues, JF, Lopez-Pousa, S, Manubens-Bertran, JM & Alpérovitch, A 1997, 'Smoking and Parkinson's disease: An age-dependent risk effect?', Neurology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1267-1272.
Tzourio C, Rocca WA, Breteler MM, Baldereschi M, Dartigues JF, Lopez-Pousa S et al. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: An age-dependent risk effect? Neurology. 1997 Nov;49(5):1267-1272.
Tzourio, Christophe ; Rocca, Walter A ; Breteler, M. M. ; Baldereschi, M. ; Dartigues, J. F. ; Lopez-Pousa, S. ; Manubens-Bertran, J. M. ; Alpérovitch, A. / Smoking and Parkinson's disease : An age-dependent risk effect?. In: Neurology. 1997 ; Vol. 49, No. 5. pp. 1267-1272.
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