Sleep Disturbances Associated with Neurological Autoimmunity

Michelle F. Devine, Erik K. St Louis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Associations between sleep disorders and neurological autoimmunity have been notably expanding recently. Potential immune-mediated etiopathogenesis has been proposed for various sleep disorders including narcolepsy, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and Morvan syndrome. Sleep manifestations are also common in various autoimmune neurological syndromes, but may be underestimated as overriding presenting (and potentially dangerous) neurological symptoms often require more urgent attention. Even so, sleep dysfunction has been described with various neural-specific antibody biomarkers, including IgLON5; leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1); contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2); N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor; Ma2; dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX); alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R); anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type-1 (ANNA-1, i.e., Hu); anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type-2 (ANNA-2, i.e., Ri); gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B-receptor (GABA-B-R); metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5); and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Given potentially distinctive findings, it is possible that sleep testing could potentially provide objective biomarkers (polysomnography, quantitative muscle activity during REM sleep, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1) to support an autoimmune diagnosis, monitor therapeutic response, or disease progression/relapse. However, more comprehensive characterization of sleep manifestations is needed to better understand the underlying sleep disruption with neurological autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-201
Number of pages21
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Autoimmunity
  • Diagnosis
  • Neurological autoimmunity
  • Polysomnography
  • Sleep disorders
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Sleep Disturbances Associated with Neurological Autoimmunity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this