Single islet autoantibody at diagnosis of clinical type 1 diabetes is associated with older age and insulin resistance

Maria J. Redondo, Jay Sosenko, Ingrid Libman, Jennifer J.F. McVean, Mustafa Tosur, Mark A. Atkinson, Dorothy Becker, Susan Geyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Context: Multiple islet autoantibody positivity usually precedes clinical (stage 3) type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective: To test the hypothesis that individuals who develop stage 3 T1D with only a single autoantibody have unique metabolic differences. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of participants in the T1D TrialNet study. Setting: Autoantibody-positive relatives of individuals with stage 3 T1D. Participants: Autoantibody-positive relatives who developed stage 3 T1D (at median age 12.4 years, range = 1.4–58.6) and had autoantibody data close to clinical diagnosis (n = 786, 47.4% male, 79.9% non-Hispanic white). Main Outcome Measures: Logistic regression modeling was used to assess relationships between autoantibody status and demographic, clinical, and metabolic characteristics, adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons. Results: At diagnosis of stage 3 T1D, single autoantibody positivity, observed in 119 (15.1%) participants (72% GAD65, 13% microinsulin antibody assay, 11% insulinoma-associated antigen 2, 1% islet cell antibody, 3% autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 [ZnT8]), was significantly associated with older age, higher C-peptide measures (fasting, area under the curve, 2-hour, and early response in oral glucose tolerance test), higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and lower T1D Index60 (all P < 0.03). While with adjustment for age, 2-hour C-peptide remained statistically different, controlling for body mass index (BMI) attenuated the differences. Sex, race, ethnicity, human leukocyte antigen DR3-DQ2, and/or DR4-DQ8, BMI category, and glucose measures were not significantly associated with single autoantibody positivity. Conclusions: Compared with multiple autoantibody positivity, single autoantibody at diagnosis of stage 3 T1D was associated with older age and insulin resistance possibly mediated by elevated BMI, suggesting heterogeneous disease pathogenesis. These differences are potentially relevant for T1D prevention and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberdgz296
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • Age
  • Autoantibodies
  • C-peptide
  • Insulin resistance
  • Multiple
  • Single
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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