Simvastatin attenuates smooth muscle neointimal proliferation and pulmonary hypertension in rats

Toshihiko Nishimura, John L. Faul, Gerald J. Berry, Laszlo T. Vaszar, Daoming Qiu, Ronald G. Pearl, Peter N. Kao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease is characterized by abnormal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death. Compounds with antiproliferative effects on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, may prevent the development of experimental hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. Pneumonectomized rats injected with monocrotaline at 7 days develop severe hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease with neointimal formation. Rats were randomized to receive either vehicle or treatment with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin (2 mg/kg per day). By Day 35, rats that received vehicle had higher mean pulmonary arterial pressures (53 ± 2 mm Hg) and right ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum] [RV/LV+S] = 0.78 ± 0.09) than rats in Group PMS5-35 that received simvastatin from Day 5 to 35 (mean pulmonary arterial pressure = 27 ± 3 mm Hg, RV/LV+S = 0.34 ± 0.08; p ≤ 0.001). Pulmonary vascular remodeling with neointireal formation consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells was more severe in vehicle-treated rats (vascular occlusion score, 1.98 ± 0.02) than in Group PMS5-35 (vascular occlusion score, 0.59 ± 0.46; p < 0.001). In addition, lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression was decreased in vehicle-treated animals but was restored toward normal levels in simvastatin-treated animals. Simvastatin attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling with neointimal formation, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy in rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1403-1408
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume166
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2002

Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Endothelium
  • Hypertension
  • Nitric oxide synthase
  • Pulmonary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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