Background. The introduction of potent new immunosuppressive agents may allow simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation to be performed without antilymphocyte induction. Methods. We analyzed 30 simultaneous kidney- pancreas transplantations receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids without without antilymphocyte induction. Eighteen patients underwent pancreas transplantation with portal-enteric (P-E) drainage and the remaining 12 had systemic bladder (S-B) drainage. Target 12 hr trough tacrolimus levels for the first 3 months after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation were 15-20 ng/ml. The oral mycophenolate mofetil dose was 2-3 g/day begun immediately posttransplant in two to four divided doses. Steroids were tapered according to protocol. Results. All patients experienced immediate function of both kidney and pancreas grafts. One-year actuarial patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival rates are 93, 93, and 90%, respectively. Nine patients (30%) had a total of 13 rejection episodes (12 biopsy proven) including 4 within 2 weeks, 6 between 2 weeks and 3 months, and 3 beyond 3 months after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Three rejection episodes were treated with steroids alone and 10 were treated with antilymphocyte therapy (5 OKT3 and 5 ATGAM). A total of seven patients (23%) received antilymphocyte therapy. Three patients (10%) had more than one rejection episode. Two pancreas grafts (7%) and one kidney graft (3%) were lost from rejection. Four patients (13%) developed cytomegalovirus infection, but none had tissue-invasive cytomegalovirus. At present, 22 surviving patients (81%) remain on triple immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone with excellent dual graft function. Conclusion. Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone immunosuppression without without antilymphocyte induction is safe and effective after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation.
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