Signal protein-functionalized gold nanoparticles for nuclear targeting into osteosarcoma cells for use in radiosensitization experiments

Z. Bures, T. Mamo, M. Vlcek, L. Lu, Michael J Yaszemski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The standard therapy for malignant primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma involves major surgeries. For tumors located in difficult regions such as the pelvis, surgical intervention could lead to serious side effects for example loss of a limb and/or function, loss of bowel, bladder and sexual function as well as problems with wound healing and surgical complica-tions. Therefore, exploring other approaches that can improve or complement current surgical techniques is important. Hence, sensitizing primary bone tumors to radiation could offer an additional strategy that could complement surgery and significantly improve survival and quality of life. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been shown to enhance radiosensitivity by increasing the local dose of radiation inside tumors. Therefore, the referred procedure of preparation and functionaliza-tion of gold nanoparticles may be used for investigation whether DNA repair inhibition in the presence of AuNPs leads to an effective radiosensitizing strategy for primary bone tumor cells and explore the mechanism of how this may be happening. In our work, we prepared gold nanoparticles and verified the relation between the size of the AuNPs and their uptake in tumor 143B cells and also investigated whether the optimal size of the AuNPs should not be smaller than the size of nuclear envelope pores (20-50 nm). Hence, two different AuNPs systems were prepared: the first one with AuNPs core size of about 5 nm (BS) and the second one with AuNPs core size of about 50 nm (ZA). For cellular AuNPs uptake enhancement, we functionalized the AuNPs with signaling peptides. For this purpose we prepared PEG-coated AuNPs functionalized with signal peptides for targeted transport into the cytoplasm (CPP) and into the cell nucleus (CPP + NLS). The toxicity of the AuNPs systems was assessed by MTS assay. We prepared stable functionalized AuNPs systems of both sizes. With the functionalizing of the AuNPs using signal peptides (CPP, NLS), the AuNPs penetrated into the cell nucleus. The referred procedure of preparation and functionalization of gold nanoparticles may be used for investigating inhibition of DNA repair in the presence of AuNPs and it could lead to new understanding in overcoming radioresistance in primary bone tumor cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)576-583
Number of pages8
JournalNeoplasma
Volume67
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Cellular uptake
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles functionalization
  • Nuclear targeting
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Radiosen-sitization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research

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