Post-pubertal testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCTs) can present with a variety of distinct histologies which are nevertheless lineage related and often co-occurring. The exact lineage relationships and developmental pathways leading to the different histologies is debated. In order to investigate the relationship of histologic populations, mate-pair sequencing (MPseq) and exome sequencing (ExomeSeq) were conducted on different histological populations within the same tumour. Ten TGCTs with 1–3 histologic types/tumour were sequenced. Junctions of somatic chromosomal rearrangements were identified on a per genome basis, with germ cell neoplasia in situ possessing the least (median 1, range 0–4) and embryonal carcinoma the most (median 8.5, range 6–12). Copy number variation revealed gains and losses, including isoform 12p (i12p) (10/10 samples), and chromosomes 7, 8, and 21 gains (7/10 samples). Mapping of shared junctions within a tumour revealed lineage relationships, but only i12p was shared between patients. ExomeSeq from two cases demonstrated a high level of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Parallel assessment of separate histologies within a single TGCT demonstrated cumulative and divergent changes, suggesting the importance of parallel sequencing for detection of relevant biomarkers.
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